As a whole, antioxidants are substances which get rid of, feed on, as well as subdue the development of ROS, or oppose their activities. The major anti-oxidants are vitamin A, vitamin E, beta-carotene, vitamin C and the trace mineral selenium. A variety of nutritional treatments have actually been revealed to improve sperm matters, and sperm motility, consisting of carnitine, arginine, zinc, selenium, and vitamin B-12. Antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, as well as coenzyme Q10, have actually likewise verified helpful in treating male’s inability to conceive. (16)

Vitamin E: Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is a chainbreaking antioxidant found in the sperm’s cell membrane and acts by neutralizing H2O2 and quenching free radicals, hence halting chain reactions that produce lipid peroxides and protecting the membrane from the damage induced by ROS. Furthermore, it improves the activity of other scavenging oxidants. In these ways, vitamin E helps to preserve both sperm motility and morphology. (17)

Vitamin C: Vitamin C (ascorbate) is another chain-breaking antioxidant that plays a significant role (up to 65%) in combatting OS in the seminal plasma. It reacts with OH-, O2-, and H2O2 in the extracellular fluid, thus protecting sperm viability and motility. However, vitamin C is only a weak ROS scavenger in the cell membrane and, hence, has almost no effect within the cell. (18)

L-Carnitine-Carnipure: Clinical research shows that the concentration of free L-carnitine in semen is positively related to sperm count, sperm motility, and the number of motile sperm/mL semen in infertile men with varying degrees of sperm count and motility. The concentration of total L-carnitine in sperm seems to be directly related to sperm motility, while the concentration of total L-carnitine in seminal plasma is related to sperm count. Thus, L-carnitine can also be regarded as a diagnostic tool and a marker to measure sperm quality. Free L-carnitine actually serves as a marker for clinically evaluating the secretory capacity and thus the gland function of the epididymis.Epididymal plasma contains the highest concentrations of L-carnitine found in the human body – 2000 times higher than in circulating blood levels. Generally, L-carnitine supplementation is associated with significant increases in sperm concentration and count, percent motile sperm, and percent sperm with rapid linear progression. (19)